About Indonesia (www.theworldatlas.com)
Indonesia, with over 18,000 counted islands, is by far the largest and most varied archipelago on Earth. It spans almost 2 million square kilometres between Asia and Australia. Positioned on the Equator, across a region of immense volcanic activity, Indonesia has some 400 volcanoes within its borders, with at least 90 still active in some way.
Many of the islands here are still uninhabited, with the larger islands of Java, Kalimantan (Borneo), Irian Jaya (Papua), Sumatra and Sulawesi home to most of the population base.
This tropical country and its many islands are one of the most stunning destinations on our planet, but recent (though isolated) terrorism attacks in Bali and other areas of the country have certainly stifled some of the country's tourism. In addition, the major Tsunami of December, 2004, severely damaged most of the northern reaches of Sumatra, and there's still an apprehensive feeling in the air for both residents and visitors alike.
Facts and Figures
Population - 214,973,900
Relative Location - Indonesia, located on both sides of the Equator, is therefore in both the northern and southern hemispheres, as well as the eastern hemisphere. It's positioned just to the north of Australia in far Southeast Asia, and bordered by the Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean, over a dozen regional seas, and the countries of Malaysia, Papua New Guinea and East Timor.
This archipelagic nation contains over 18,000 islands. Of those, the larger islands of Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Irian Jaya are quite mountainous, with some peaks reaching 12,000 ft. The highest elevations (over 16,000 ft) are found on Irian Jaya in the east.
Located along the Ring of Fire, Indonesia has some 400 volcanoes within its borders, with at least 90 still active in some way. Significant rivers include the Barito, Digul, Hari, Kampar, Kapuas, Kayan and Musi. There are also scattered inland lakes, small in size.
Highest Point Puncak Jaya - 16,502 ft. (5,030 m); lowest Point Indian Ocean - 0 ft. (0 m).
Organic Profile - International Trade Centre
Although no official government program is implemented in support of organic farming in Indonesia (Food and Fertilizer Technology Center), many NGOs like Pesticides Action Network (PAN) Indonesia, SPTN-HPS, ELSPPAT (Bogor), BITRA, and Sintesa in North Sumatra are trying to promote the debate about agriculture in public whilst organizing practical projects with farmers' groups. These NGOs are members of the national network of organic farmers (Jaringan Kerja Pertanian Organik), which includes both NGOs and farmers' groups. Although not a member of IFOAM, the national network, works together with IFOAM on some activities. The Indonesian Organic Alliance (an alliance of 41 members) has set up a national certification centre called BIOCert (Board of Indonesian Organic Certification). www.intracen.org/Organics/Country-Profile-Indonesia.htm
Population statistics by Province - Badan Pusat Statistik
Extending along the equator latitude 60 8' North to 110 South, and longitude 940 45' to 141o East, the climate is typically monsoon with two distinctive seasonal changes every six months; dry season (June to September) and rainy season (December to March). The fourth most populous country in the world (215 million people in 2004) has a tropical environment with daily temperature ranging between 23 to 31O C in the low plains and 18 to 27O C in the highland areas. However, it is the variable rainfall pattern rather than temperature that determine the agricultural systems, in general. Based on rainfall map (Agricultural Statistics 2000, MOA), Indonesia has the rainfall at average of 2000 - 3500 mm per annum. The humidity is relatively high, at average of 80 percent.
Land - Indonesia has vast natural resources, which is the prime asset to be for agribusiness development. The total of land area in Indonesia in 1992 was about 192 million hectares. Up to 1998, about 66 million hectares, or only 34 % has been used for agriculture and other purposes. Arable land for food crop production reached around 29 million hectares of the 130 million hectares available; meanwhile there are 17 million hectares of idle lands that can be utilized for organic farming. It is apparent that food crop production will dominate the organic agriculture, particularly in Jawa-Bali, Sumatera, and West Papua.
Among the five major islands, Java is the most densely populated but also the most fertile. On Java, agricultural land area tends to decline, while outside Java is to increase. The potentially useable land resource is still available especially in Kalimantan and Sumatra, which have the biggest area of land in Indonesia.
The marine resources potential is high and generally under utilized, except in coastal and immediate offshore area. Ocean and sea fishery has a great potential to develop the pelagic as well as the demersal species, having each a potential of 3.2 and 1.8 million ton per annum respectively for a sustainable exploitation. The development of sea fishery should be expanded to the Indian Ocean, Sulawesi Sea, Southeast Pacific Ocean, and South China Sea.
With a population of over 215 million people that is still growing, there is no doubt that organic agricultural products will have a market in the future in Indonesia. According the owner of a a general supermarket in Bisnis Indonesia, reporting in a daily newspaper (21/12/2004), there are currently approximately 15 million people in Indonesia consuming organic foods. Although trade of organic products mushrooming in the big cities, very few shops specialize in organic products.
The department of agriculture established an ambitious program, entitled Go Organic 2010, with the target to become one of the biggest exporters of organic commodities in the world. This three-stage program began in 2001. 2001 was categorized as the first step, whereby existing information on organic agriculture was consolidated. By 2005 a well-developed Infrastructure shall have been established, and by 2010 Indonesia aims to be one of the biggest organic agriculture producers in the world. http://www.biotani.org/organic_farming.htm